War Studies Programmes

Content

Programme Information

Course Descriptions

Contacts

Programme Chair:
Dr. Nikolas Gardner, Ph.D.
Programme Associate Chair:
Dr. Randall Wakelam, Ph.D.
Programme Representative:
613-541-6000 ext. 6862
Fax:
613-541-6219
Email:
warstudies@rmc.ca
Web page:
War Studies Programme
 

General Information

Programmes Offered

The degree Master of Arts in War Studies is awarded to officers and civilians who successfully complete a programme of studies comprised of either a Course pattern, a Thesis pattern, or a Directed Research Project (DRP) pattern. A Master of Arts Degree in War Studies through part-time registration in the Distance Learning Programme was initiated in 1992. This Programme is aimed at allowing officers and a number of civilians to continue their full-time employment while simultaneously pursuing an upper-level degree. To this end, a number of courses taught by RMC of Canada are available on the Internet.

The PhD in War Studies is awarded to officers and civilians who successfully complete the programme of study, as discussed in the following sections. The three areas of research are:

  • International Relations,
  • Defence Policy, and
  • Military History.

Admission

Candidates are admitted under the General Admission Requirements. Entry to the PhD Programme is competitive. Applicants must have completed Masters degree or equivalent. A thesis-route Masters degree is desirable but not a requirement for admission. Details regarding admission to the Royal Military College as a graduate student can be found in the Admissions section of this Calendar.

Programme Requirements

Master of Arts in War Studies

The degree of Master of Arts in War Studies will be awarded to students who successfully complete a programme of studies comprised of either of the following patterns:

  • Course Pattern - Ten graduate course credits
  • Thesis Pattern - Six graduate course credits plus a thesis.
  • Directed Research Project (DRP) Pattern - Eight graduate course credits plus a DRP (PR500)

There is one two-credit required core course (WS500) for all the degree patterns.

The MA in War Studies, when pursued full-time normally requires four academic terms or two academic years to complete. No MA program may exceed five years.

PhD in War Studies Programme

The doctoral programme of study is comprised of the following:

  • Six 600-level course credits (covering a major field of study and two minor fields of study);
  • One additional 600-level methodology course (WS607);
  • Three field examinations (covering a major field of study and two minor fields of study). Students must register in CP600 course code every term until completion of examinations;
  • Successful defence of a dissertation: Students register in TH600 course code every term until defence and corrections are made to the dissertation;
  • A second language requirement.

The PhD in War Studies normally requires five years to complete. Students must register as full-time students for a period of two years to undertake course work and complete comprehensive examinations, followed by three years to research, write and defend the dissertation.

Language Requirement

Doctoral candidates are required to show competence in one language other than their mother tongue (English or French). They must pass a language test before being permitted to write the field examinations, or they must show proof that the requirement has been met at the graduate level elsewhere.

Other Credits

The following courses in Security and Defence Management and Policy are acceptable for credit toward a Masters of Arts in War Studies:

  • MPA523: Defence Decision Making
  • MPA529: Canadian Defence and Foreign Policy
  • MPA539: Economics of Defence
  • MPA549: Economics of National Security
  • MPA565: Conflict Analysis and Management
  • MPA567: Managing and Resolving Violent Conflicts
  • MPA575: Human Security: Theory and Practise

Course Descriptions

Any 500 series course, when taken at the Doctoral level, will require additional work and will be assigned a corresponding 600 series code.

WS500 The Theories of War from the Eighteenth Century to the Present

This course is an in-depth study of the modern interpretations of warfare, including Clausewitz, Jomini, Hamley, Moltke, Schlieffen, and Foch. There will be course work on geopolitical and maritime doctrines of war by Mackinder, Haushofer, Mahan, and Corbett. The course examines doctrines of armoured and air warfare such as Fuller, Hart, and Douhet. Developments of military technology since 1945 and their impact on strategic thinking, the theories of deterrence, revolutionary and guerrilla war, disarmament and arms controls, and the international law of war, are also examined.

Note:
A core course for the Master's programme and normally a core course for the PhD programme.
Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS501 Civil-Military Relations in Canada

The course examines the evolution and state of civil-military relations in Canada, with a particular emphasis on contemporary trends and issues. The course explores the mechanisms of civil control of the military to develop an understanding of the shared responsibility between civilian leaders and military officers. The evolution of civil-military relations in Canada is reviewed, as well as an examination of the complex structure of decision making for defence issues. The last part is devoted to the unique relationship between the Canadian military, the government and society in a post 9/11 world.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS502 War, Politics and International Relations

This course examines the interlocking patterns of international politics and war. The traditional approach to international relations will be studied, as well as systems analysis. The topics considered will include existing international organizations, problems of disarmament, arms control and peacekeeping, and governmental co-operation in wartime.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS504 Contemporary Warfare

An analytical look at selected aspects of modern warfare, studying the evolution of warfare in the Twentieth Century and the changing nature of military requirements of warfare.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS506 Civil and Military Relations Since 1815

This Seminar course examines the civil-military relationship of selected major Powers since 1815. Reading and discussion will probe the influence of political control over the size, disposition, and strategic use of armed forces, the influence of the military in making national policies, legal and constitutional questions arising out of the relationship of the armed forces to civil authority, and the bureaucratic structure of defence organizations and their relationship to the domestic and foreign policies of the governments they serve. In this, the changing economic, political, social and technological milieu, which affected the civil-military dynamic, will be an important consideration. Each year the course will be structured around a unifying theme. Some of these include the development of national strategy, the rise and fall of states, strategic studies and the problem of power and war planning in peacetime.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS507 Methodology

The course introduces the study of war in a multi- disciplinary perspective. Various research methodologies and resources, including archival work, are introduced. Major trends and interpretations in the examination of war are explored, as are issues and problems of contemporary research.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS509 Evolution and Theory of International Peacekeeping

This course examines the evolution of international peacekeeping, and the theory of third party intervention as a mechanism for conflict management. The evolution of interventions is traced from 19th century imperial policing and small wars to League of Nations Mandates, peace observation, and the UN system. Conflict resolution theory has some impact on peacekeeping after 1956, and new forms of post-colonial peacekeeping and stabilization missions characterize the Cold War period. These are examined from an interdisciplinary perspective.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS510 War in the Mediterranean, 1939-1945

This course examines the Mediterranean theatre of war, 1939-1945, from the tactical level to that of grand strategy. It analyses in depth the campaigns conducted around, on and above the Mediterranean Ocean during the Second World War. Particular emphasis will be placed on land campaigns in North Africa, Crete, Sicily and Italy; however some seminars will address the issues of the Mediterranean theatre in alliance diplomacy as well as naval and air operations.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS511 Contemporary Peace and Stabilization Operations

This course considers peacekeeping and international stabilization operations since the 1980s, with a focus on operations mounted by the UN and regional organizations. The political, strategic and tactical dimensions of peacekeeping are considered, drawing on the academic disciplines of history, political science, and social psychology. The course reviews efforts to improve and reform the conduct of international peacekeeping in light of recent experience, and the normative biases of peace studies, conflict resolution, and strategic studies.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS512 Canadian Defence Studies: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions

This course is a study of the interaction of military, domestic and foreign politics in Canada since the colonial regimes. This course consists of specialized reading and the preparation of working papers for Seminar discussion.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS513 The Vietnam War

This course allows students to examine the US experience of the Vietnam War, chronologically and through a number of perspectives. Topics include the origins of the war and the subsequent US escalation, the role of Vietnam in the Cold War, media coverage, presidential decision making, public opinion and domestic politics, and the fall of Saigon. The US combat infantryman's experience in Vietnam will be also be examined. Analysis will also be devoted to the Vietnamese experience. The War's legacy, as well as the debate about the parallels between the Vietnam War and the current US intervention in Iraq, will be discussed as well.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS515 The United States and Small Wars

This course will examine the role of small wars in shaping both the American military and American power. Seminar topics will include political, military and public perceptions of small wars, the affect of small wars on the US military, the specialized skills and training that soldiers require to fight small wars, and the evolution of Special Forces and their role in prosecuting America's small wars. The 1940 USMC "Small Wars Manual" and 2007 "The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual" will be core texts for this course.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS516 Modern Warfare and Technological Development

This course deals with an examination of the relationships that exist between technology and the military. Military doctrine, tactics, strategy, logistics and organization will be investigated to determine the influence and effect that technological growth and innovation exerts in peace and war.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS517 Canadian Political Parties, Public Opinion, and Foreign Policy

Drawing upon both political history and political sociology, this course will explore the history, ideology, organization and social composition of parties to study how these factors influence the different parties' perspectives on Canadian foreign policy. The contours of Canadian public opinion and party positions will be explored in an effort to map the terrain that frames debate on Canadian foreign policy. Considerable emphasis will be on the comments of party activists, MPs, and leaders; the contents of party's manifestoes and platforms in elections, and parties' voting patterns in Parliament.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS518 War, Revolution and Peace in Modern East Asia

This course examines in detail, the impact of war, revolution and peace on the modern transformation of China, Japan and Korea from the late eighteenth century to the present.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS519 Studies of Genocide

This course will explore the different disciplinary approaches to genocide, the different theories of genocide, the challenging methodological issues of genocide, and the scope and magnitude of genocide. Amongst the themes to be explored are the common features of genocide, the stages in genocide, and the backdrop of ethnic violence. The course will offer case studies of the most cited examples of genocide, drawing upon insights from the Armenian genocide, the Holocaust, the Cambodian genocide and the Rwandan genocide, while also looking briefly at other examples to see how well they fit the analytical frameworks. The course will conclude on the issue of future prospects and prevention. Readings will draw from both analytical works and case studies.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS520 Maritime Strategy and Naval Policy

This course examines naval strategic theory and policy development in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Generally, the seminar will examine the nature of sea power, its use as an instrument of international relations in war and peace, and the effects of technological, social, economic and political change upon policy formulation by the major maritime powers.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS521 Gendered Dimensions of War

This course examines gender issues and gender relations in the context of conflict and war. Drawing on literature in anthropology, sociology, international relations, development studies and women's studies, this course analyses the institution of war as a gendered phenomenon, the impact of war on gender relations and societal norms, what/who constitutes the warrior/war hero, and feminist approaches to peacekeeping and peacemaking.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS522 The Foreign Policies of Russia Since 1917

This course is a study of Russian foreign policies since the Revolution of 1917. The course will examine: Soviet relations with capitalist states, developing nations and members of the Socialist camps; the history of the Comintern and the Cominform; the role of the Communist Party in decision-making; the ideological formulation of foreign policy making as well as Soviet theories of international relations; and the changing constellation of international power since the end of the Cold War.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS524 The Impact of Total War in the Twentieth Century

This course examines the military, political, social and economic influences of total war on European society in the twentieth century. Special consideration will be given to the development of machinery for the higher direction of total wars, the problems of peacetime diplomacy and military preparation, the relationship between domestic and foreign policies, and the difficulties faced by democratic and totalitarian states in waging total war. The major emphasis will be on Germany, Britain, Russia, and France, although reference will be made to other European countries and to the United States.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS525 British Military History from the Eighteenth Century to the Present

This course is an examination of the British way in warfare from the Seven Years War to the present. Due to its particular geographical location and peculiar circumstances, Britain has pursued its military affairs in a unique fashion, quite different from the way in which the major European states have conducted their military affairs. For the British, national security has rested on the pillars of naval supremacy, economic strength and financial power. Underpinning these strengths was a commitment to the maintenance and expansion of the British Empire, something tied intimately to Britain's financial and economic well-being. British participation in European continental wars has tended to reflect the realities of the British strategic position, with London providing financial subsidies and material aid to her allies, while confining her own efforts to naval matters as much as possible. The exceptions to this general rule were, of course, the two world wars of the twentieth century, anomalies for Britain that will be explored thoroughly in this course. Given the world-wide nature of Britain's concerns, this course will provide a case study of global defence of both historical interest and contemporary relevance.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS527 Military Ethics

This course is devoted to the study of ethics in the military profession. Topics include ethical theory, ethical decision-making, the professional military ethic, just war theory, moral development, and ethical failure. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to apply ethical concepts to the Canadian military profession.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS528 Advanced Directed Studies

In this course, the format and content vary to meet specific requirements of candidates. Normally, it involves extensive individual research under the direction of the instructor as well as submission of substantial research papers of graduate seminar quality.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS529 Special Topics

This course affords students the opportunity to examine a specific topic in war and peace not available through other courses offered. Normally, this course is conducted as a directed studies course (i.e., reading course) and involves individual research under the direction of the instructor and submission of research papers of graduate seminar quality.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS530 Psychological Factors in Warfare and Human Conflict

This course examines the application of behavioural science findings to situations of conflict between human beings. Psychological and sociological approaches to conflict between individuals and groups are examined and integrated from a social-psychological perspective. Special consideration will be given to the role of individual processes (perceptions, attitudes, motivation and morale, stress reactions, human limitations) as well as group processes (values, ideology, group cohesion, leadership, psychological warfare) in understanding both the sources of conflict and the behaviour of individuals during times of conflict.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS531 American Foreign Policy: 1776 to the Present

This course covers American foreign policy from the early days of the Republic to the present with an emphasis on the post-1968 period. In addition to examining trends and events, the course also considers the major intellectual debates about U.S. foreign relations as well as the institutions and policies processes associated with U.S. foreign policy.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS533 Studies in American Defence Policy

This course examines contemporary American defense policy from a strategic, political, economic and bureaucratic perspective. It begins with a discussion of various concepts and ideas about U.S. defense policy, looks at the post-Cold War era and the War on Terrorism and moves on to consideration of the institutions and processes associated with the making and implementation of defense policy in the United States.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS534 Religion and Modern War

Religion has played a crucial role in many of the conflicts found in the history of humanity, in every part of the world. Wars and other kinds of hostilities have been started, conducted and ended for religious reasons. The term "religion" itself, however, is a problematic one, and scholars have had little success developing a comprehensive definition for a term used in so many contexts and situations. Yet it is also clear that without an understanding of the facets of religion and religious experience, our ability to understand any conflict with a religious element is severely undercut. This course begins by examining the nature of religion from social scientific and philosophical perspectives, giving students some of the key concepts and approaches required. In the remainder of the course, the role religion has played in specific historical conflicts in the 20th century is explored, illuminating the different ways in which religion has been used to identify the antagonists and justify their positions.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS536 War, Man and Literature

The phenomenon of war is explored through literature. Wars and conflicts are examined using literature source material, covering different historical periods. The course requirements and texts can be adjusted to meet the specific interests of the candidates.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS537 Intelligence Studies

This course will address intelligence from the perspective of history, theory and public policy. It will assess the different sources of intelligence, their power and limitations, the nature of assessment and acceptance, and the influence of intelligence on policy and action. It will address several cases studies of intelligence, varying by historical period and topic ( including diplomatic and military issues, and matters of war and peace). It will consider such issues as intelligence and politics, intelligence failures, strategic surprise and deception. It will conclude by examining efforts to reform intelligence since the end of the cold war, ranging from ideas about a revolution in military intelligence, stemming from changes in information technology and precision guided munitions, to arguments about the need to restructure western intelligence services to handle new threats which emerged after 2001.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS538 Intelligence: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions

This course offers a comparative study of the organizations which compose the Western intelligence community. Historical examinations facilitate an understanding of intelligence in national security policy. The contemporary dimension serves to explore those domestic processes and external factors which drive national intelligence efforts.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS539 Signals Intelligence

This seminar investigates the history, nature and role of signals intelligence, a discipline that involves the collection and processing of data from various signals by many means, whether by monitoring patterns of communication networks ( traffic analysis) or reading the messages of foreign states ( communications intelligence ), especially through code-breaking. This seminar will assess the literature on the topic, and its influence on war and peace, from a multinational perspective, tracing the discipline from its infancy until the present day.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS540 The Development of Aerospace Power: Theory and Practice

This course will examine the development of air power and aerospace power with a particular focus on theories of air and aerospace power and their effect on the conduct of war throughout the century. Seminars will study the nature of air power and aerospace power, its use in war and peace, and the effects of technological, social, economic, and political change on the application of air and aerospace power. The course will develop a framework for understanding the interplay between strategy, military innovation, defence policy, and technology.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS541 Discourses of the Extreme: from the reactionaries to the end of the 2nd World War

This course aims to analyze discourses, ideologies and organizations that, since the beginning of the 19th Century, have opposed themselves radically and violently to the world order and the social evolution that stem from the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Lectures, punctuated by text analysis and oral presentations, aim to examine the factors that motivated the emergence of such thinking, the nature of the numerous demands as well as their influence on society. The reactionaries' discourse (Burke, Maistre, Bonald) will be analyzed, as well as those of anti-egalitarians, anti-democrats and anti-state propagandists (Gobineau, Renan, Spencer). The appearance, at the end of the 19th Century, of the anarchist movement (Proudhon, Bakounine, Kropotkine), of violent trade unionism (Sorel) as well as of proto fascist ideology (Barrès, Psichari, Drumont) will also be studied in order to better understand the origin of large mass movements typical of the 20th Century. Students will then reflect on the nature of the different political discourses of the extreme produced during the Interwar period (Maurras, Schmitt, Spengler, Drieu La Rochelle, Strauss) in order to better understand the particularities of totalitarian systems. The main question that will be raised during this course is the place occupied by the anti-moderns in the political and ideological history of the two last centuries. The studies of Isaiah Berlin, Zeev Sternhell, Albert O Hirschman and Antoine Compagnon will be presented and criticized in order to better understand their different hypotheses.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS542 The colonization and decolonization of Maghreb and West Africa: from colonial origins to single party states

The aim of this course is, through text analysis, lectures and oral presentations, to give the student a thorough knowledge of the history of the period extending from the colonization to the decolonization of Maghreb and West Africa, from the expeditions of Bugeaud, Faidherbe, Gallieni, Lyautey and Archinard, to independence and the establishment of single-party states. Beyond historical knowledge, basic concepts typical to the discursive analysis of colonial wars and asymmetrical wars will be studied. The reading of essays, newspapers, treaties, memories, pamphlets, novels, from France, Maghreb and West Africa, will help students to understand the arguments that justified colonization (Tocqueville, Bugeaud, Lyautey, etc.) as well as those who favoured rebellion and colonial wars (Fanon, Césaire, Senghor, Ben Bella, etc.). The goal is to understand the unwinding of colonization over a period of more than a century and a half, what compromises were made with local populations, as well as the mistakes and reciprocal misunderstandings that led to the wars of independence. The last part of this course will concentrate on the notion of single-party in order to understand how colonization ended, shortly after obtaining freedom, with the installment of dictators (Boumediene, Bokassa, Houphouët-Boigny, Gnassingbé Eyadema, Ahmed Sékou Touré, etc..). At the end of the course, through a focus on a variety of literary and other texts students will have acquired an excellent knowledge of what is at stake in different countries that have suffered colonization and, above all, a greater ability to analyze complex subjects: asymmetrical wars, irreducible heterogeneity of certain values, justification of colonial practices, plurality of beliefs and dictatorial systems.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS543 First World War

This seminar examines the history of the First World War from a global perspective. Issues explored will include military operations in all the major European and non-European theatres, from the Western Front to the war at sea and the campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Political and social upheavals caused by the war will receive detailed attention, as will the economic and industrial mobilization of the European and North American home fronts. From this course, students will gain an in-depth knowledge of the military, social, political, and economic aspects of a catastrophic war that shattered four empires and brought to an end the era of European dominance in world history.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS544 The Theory and Practice of Strategy in the Classical World

This course will examine the formulation and implementation of strategy in the classical world. It will comprise a series of case studies of specific periods and conflicts, including China in the Warring States period, the Peloponnesian War, the Punic Wars and the wars of the Byzantine Empire. In addition to modern scholarship, students will read classic studies written by observers and participants such as Sun Tzu, Thucydides and Livy, which still remain among the most insightful analyses of these conflicts.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
2

WS545 History of Canadian-American Relations, 1783-present

This course explores selected issues in the history of Canadian-American relations from the American Revolution to the 1990s. Topics to be explored include diplomatic and military relations, continental defence, the evolution of national and continental cultures and economies, the movement of peoples and ideas across the border, cross-border environmental issues, and how Canadians and Americans have viewed one another over time.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS547Military History of Canada's First Nations, 1500-present

This course explores selected issues in the military history of Canada's First Nations and Métis people from the 1500s to the late twentieth century. Topics to be explored include approaches to warfare and diplomacy in the pre and post-Contact period, conflict and alliances with European colonial powers in North America in the period 1600-1867, conflict in the northwest in the late nineteenth century, participation in the World Wars, and the role of Native peoples in the Canadian Forces in the twentieth century.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS549 Aerospace Law and Policy

A comprehensive study of the international laws and policies regulating air, space, and cyber military operations. The first part of the course will review principles of public international law. Topics covered in the first part are: the formation of international law, subjects of international law, the UN system, the use of force. The second part of the course will concentrate on the laws applicable to military air operations. Topics covered in the second part are: the definition of national air space, international air space, the issue of Canadian northern sovereignty, the legal status of military aircraft, air operations ROE, UN air operations, reconnaissance flights, and interception of aircraft. The third part of the course will concentrate on military space operations. Topics studied in the third part are: space law treaties, UNCOPUOS, remote sensing, US commercial regulations on remote sensing, the RADARSAT projects, the projection of force to, in, and from space, and the military/commercial interface. The fourth part of the course will cover the topic of information and cyber military operations.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS550 Great Powers in the Pacific: 1870 to the Present

This course will provide students with a detailed examination of the Far Eastern balance of power that existed between China, Japan, Russia, Britain and the United States from 1870 to present day. Military, economic, political, naval and social factors will be woven into a comprehensive analysis of the inter-related Far Eastern interests of these powers. Minor powers, such as France, Germany, and Holland, will also be discussed where appropriate, as will American involvement in Korea and Vietnam. The object of the course is to provide the historical context, which will allow a full understanding of the development of the Pacific region and its relationship with Western Powers.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS551 Evolution of Cold War Nuclear Strategy

This course will examine the evolution of nuclear strategy during the Cold War. It will concentrate mainly on strategic doctrine as it was developed by the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR. It will also consider doctrinal developments of the other Cold War nuclear powers' the Peoples' Republic of China, France and the United Kingdom. A central part of the course will involve students becoming knowledgeable about the core military technologies of the Cold War era, that is, strategic ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons. As part of this process, students will be introduced to some of the important analytical approaches in the development of Cold War strategy such as the theory of games, force exchange modelling and correlation of forces analysis.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS552 Leadership

This course examines leadership and related concepts, primarily from a psychological perspective, but topics may be explored from a broader, social science approach where the literature permits such integration. The first part of the course will examine employee motivation and then focus on leadership topics such as problems in defining and measuring leadership, different theoretical approaches to leadership, transformational leadership, substitutes for leadership, gender and leadership, leadership training, command and control, ethics and leadership, and executive leadership.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS553 The Art of Testimony and the Experience of War

This seminar aims, through lectures and oral presentations, to study the testimony of war. An overview of the first theorists will examine testimonies, providing an image of war from those who have seen it. Testimonies will be studied according to the different ways in which war is talked about (narrative techniques, memories, coherence efforts, effects of reality). A comprehensive examination of discursive laws that question truth and plausibility will serve as a basis to study the testimony of war as a genre and confront modern theories questioning the finality of testimony as truth (Certeau, Bourdieux, Honneth, Ricoeur, Mesnard). The student will gain a better understanding of testimonies themselves and their scope.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS554 Selected Topics on the Third World

This course deals with a range of issues related to the experiences and future directions of countries in the "South" or the "Third World". Topics include, but are not limited to, the study of major theories that have sought to understand and to guide political, social, and economic changes during and since the great decolonization beginning in 1945; the question of the relation between politics and economics, the construction of political identities, the myths, and realities of globalization, the meaning and value of development, the ecological dimension, and the scope for political action.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

ECG555 La gloire et le bûcher: la représentation de l'héroïsme guerrier et du sacrifice sanglant dans l'Antiquité

Available in French Only

This seminar aims to study the representation of war and sacrifice in Antiquity and Late Antiquity. An overview of Greek and Latin historians, thinkers and poets of the period from the Persian wars to the establishment of the kingdom of the Francs will allow for an analysis of the morality of these heroes and their relationship to the sacred. War and sacrifice are topics that have been addressed from Herodotus to Gregory of Tours to promulgate the ethics of the warrior and of the act of sacrifice. The study of heroes from Antiquity will allow an approach to each of their representations as a pretext, a way of promulgating an ethic of violence and self-offering. By studying which specific heroic acts the authors chose to emulate or condemn, students will acquire a better knowledge of the authors from Greek and Roman Antiquity and a more thorough understanding of the impact of this specific construction of wartime heroism and bloody sacrifices.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS559 Aspects of International History 1919 - 1945

This course will examine selected topics in international history from the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 until the end of the Second World War . Although the fundamental connection between personality and policy will be emphasized, the seminars and course readings will integrate into this the diplomatic, economic, social, and strategic elements of modern international history by looking at such diverse issues as the inter-war search for stability in Europe and the Fast East, disarmament discussions, reparations and war debts, appeasement of, and the origins and course of the Second World War.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS561 Aspects of International History Since 1945

This course will examine selected topics in international history from the end of the Second World War until the recent past. Although the fundamental connection between personality and policy will be emphasized, the seminars and course readings will integrate into this the diplomatic, economic, social and strategic elements of modern international history by looking at such diverse issues as the origins and course of the Cold War, decolonization, alliance diplomacy, international organization, and the evolution of foreign policy and strategic doctrine.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS562 Competitive and Economic Intelligence

This course examines both corporate competitive intelligence methods and practices and national economic intelligence requirements. The separation of these activities within the Canadian intelligence community is not necessarily shared by our competitors. The United States and Britain agreed not to employ national agencies in competitive intelligence only in 1946, while other countries tie their collection of corporate competitive intelligence to national economic intelligence. This course considers the disparate methodologies employed in both fields.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS564 Intelligence Methodologies and Operational Case Studies

This course examines the methodologies of intelligence operations, including issues of deception, human and technical intelligence gathering, counter-intelligence, and more. Case studies will include the operations of a number of countries including the United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and Israel.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS566 The International Security Environment

This course brings diverse analytical methodologies to bear in evaluating the evolving international security environment. It will examine the ways by which both individual states and alliances assess security threats, devise policy, and implement this policy. The connection between the intelligence services (individually and by intra-service and extra-service co-operation) and the governmental decision-making apparatuses will be emphasized. In addition, through case study analysis, both intelligence successes and failures will be studied.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS568 Case Studies in Regional Analysis

This course takes a crisis-centred approach to introduce students to the May-Neustadt model of analysis (the Harvard model). This time-line technique is now widely used throughout the United States government. Regional case studies (for instance, Central America, South America, north, central or southern Africa, the Middle East, and south, south-east, or east Asia) will be chosen for each student to work through and present analysis based on open sources.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS570 Great Powers and Intelligence

This course addresses three broad historical areas. First, it identifies the differing intelligence cultures within the so-called `Great' and `Super' Powers since 1815: France, Great Britain, Japan, Prussia/Germany, Russia, and the United States. Second, it addresses the utilization of intelligence within both these powers and any alliances in which they entered. Finally, it addresses the impact of intelligence on foreign policy formulation in war and peace over the past almost two hundred years.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS572 Issues in Canadian American Intelligence Since the Second World War

The history of Canadian-American intelligence relations has evolved in the larger context of the North Atlantic triangle. The Second World War is the modern turning point for Canadian intelligence because, for the first time, Canada began foreign military intelligence operations and also adopted new technologies. This course will look at the Canadian-American intelligence relationship; the structure and functions of Canadian intelligence agencies, which were based originally on a British model; the transition from the British to the Canadian model; some unique questions relating to domestic operations; and how the two North American powers, in terms of intelligence, have become more closely integrated. After examining historical issues relating to the relationship during Cold War, more contemporary topics can be explored.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS574 Asymmetric Threats

The burgeoning literature on Asymmetric Warfare and the events of 9/11 have sparked wide interest in Asymmetric Warfare. This course offers an introduction to the topic with particular attention paid to the forms of asymmetric threats, primarily via Weapons of Mass Destruction (Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological), and threats to critical infrastructure through weapons of mass disruption. Discussion focuses on the theory and practice by first situating the discussion within the wider framework of strategic theory and literature, particularly that on terrorism and low intensity war theory. The course proceeds through an extended review of the nature of chemical, biological and nuclear threats, and emerging threats to critical infrastructure. The central focus of the initial weeks of the course is the introduction and incorporation of some advanced qualitative analytical models. As well, control regimes (Arms Control), and consequence management are explored within the context of the various threats.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS582 The Profession of Arms

This course will examine the military profession from a multi- disciplinary perspective. Students will study relevant theory and research from the disciplines of philosophy, psychology, sociology, politics and history. A significant portion of the course will be devoted to the study of ethics in the military profession. Specific topics will include: ethical decision-processes, the professional military ethic, just war theory, moral development, ethical failure, military culture and ethos, diversity in the military, civil-military relations, the non-commissioned officer corps, and the general officer corps.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS584 Canadian Foreign Policy

This course examines the origins, evolution, context, and intellectual content of Canadian foreign policy and diplomatic practices.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS586 Special Operations

The objective of this course is to garner an appreciation of the principles, roles, and operations of special forces in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. The course examines the evolution of British, American, German, French, Canadian and other special forces and studies operations conducted from WWI to the present by these various special forces units.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS588 The Second World War

This seminar examines the Second World War from the tactical level to that of grand strategy. Issues of diplomacy, coalition warfare, national mobilization, campaign planning and battle will be examined from the perspectives of all the major powers. Particular emphasis will be placed on the war efforts of Great Britain, the United States, Germany, the Soviet Union, Japan, Italy, France and Canada.

Seminar:
3 periods per week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS589 Issues of National and International Security in International Relations: Theories and Practice Since 1945

This course will examine the changing way in which states have addressed international security issues since 1945. This will involve an examination of the primary theoretical approaches to explaining international relations. The theoretical discussion will be accompanied by study of the practical efforts that have been taken by states, such as the development of international organizations and laws, to deal with security issues, and the changes that have occurred in the nature of the state system during that same time.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS590 Canada and War

This seminar examines the military, social, and political dimensions of Canada's war experience since 1860, with particular emphasis on the Boer War, the Great War, the Second World War, the Korean Conflict, and peace support operations. Specific themes will include imperial and coalition warfare, national mobilization, battle doctrine, naval and air operations, the home-front, the memory of war, and the individual soldier's war.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (two terms)
Credit(s):
2

WS591 Issues of International and National Security in International Relations: Changing Definitions

This course will focus on the changing definitions of security. This will include an examination of the development of international norms relating to intervention, the affect of non-state actors in the system, and the changes in the concept of national security at the state level that have occurred as a result.

Seminar:
3 periods a week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS593 The News Media and the Military

This course examines the relationship between the news media and the military within the broader context of the pervasive presence of mass media of communication in the political and cultural realms. A critical personal inventory of the students- habits as mass media consumers forms the basis for the course and for each class. The course studies the rhetoric of mass media communication from Plato to today before shifting focus to an investigation of the newsroom, the business and marketing pressures affecting its operation, and the constitutional and legal rights and responsibilities related to freedom of the press. Students will survey and examine in detail examples and case studies of the evolving relationship between the news media and the military in Canada and elsewhere. The aim of this course is to enable students to critically analyze various print and electronic news products, including their modes and styles of presentation, and to evaluate their relationship to the military.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS595 Armed Forces in Society

This course examines the relationship between Armed Forces and society in a contemporary and comparative perspective. Beginning with an analysis of the classic and recent literature on civil-military relations, the course looks at trends in the United States, Canada, Western Europe, the newly emerging democracies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It also examines the relationship amongst the military, government and civil society in Asia and the Middle East.

Seminar:
3 hours per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS597 Post-Cold War Nuclear Policy

This course will examine the role of nuclear weapons in the overall security policy of nuclear and near-nuclear states in the post-Cold War (Second Nuclear) era. The potential strategic uses of nuclear weapons in this era will be markedly different than those seen in the Cold War. Indeed, it is already clear that the central nuclear security paradigm of the Cold War (retaliatory deterrence) is no longer viable. An increase in the number of nuclear states; changes in delivery technology; changes in warhead technology and substantial changes in the overall security environment are examples of the new strategic imperatives that have combined to create novel nuclear security challenges for post-Cold War states. That this new strategic context will be shaped mainly by the strategic policy postures of old and new nuclear states and possibly non-state actors is the undeniable reality of the Second Nuclear Era. It is this interplay of nuclear strategy, nuclear weapon technology and changed perspectives on the utility of strategic nuclear war that is the central focus of this course. Examples of the issues that students will analyse in the course are the strategic implications of vertical and horizontal proliferation, the Nth + 1 country problem, the shift in the structure of deterrence, nuclear terrorism and the possible move to nuclear war-fighting strategies. As part of the analytical component of the course students will be introduced to strategic analytical methods such as nuclear pre-attack static indicators, strategic correlation of forces analysis, theory of games, conflict analysis and some force targeting models.

Seminar:
3 Periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

WS599 A Canadian Way of Air Warfare

This is a one term course examining the development of air power philosophy, doctrine and practice in Canada in the past century. It looks both at the events of the First and Second World Wars as well as the Cold War; these are studied within the context of the broader Canadian military and security experience. The course is not limited to military events but also explores the creation of 'air mindedness' both in the Canadian military and Government of Canada as well as the general population. Major themes will include the employment of the RCAF and Canadian air forces in war and peace, civil military relations, alliance arrangements, force structure, procurement and the existence of a unique air force culture. Various methodological approaches will be employed including the use of artifacts, primary source documents, oral histories, and comparative studies between the RCAF and the air arms of other nations and other Canadian services.

Seminar:
3 Periods per week (one term)
Credit(s):
1

PR500 Directed Research Project

Students who choose the Directed Research Pattern MA must complete a directed research project (DRP), which demonstrates graduate-level ability to research, analyze, and write. The DRP will be 40-50 pages in length and should include some primary source research.

No equivalent for PhD Students

Credit(s):
2

TH500 Thesis/Dissertation

A thesis may be required for the Master's programme. The research must demonstrate the student's ability to carry out a significant research project.

Credit(s):
6

TH600 Thesis/Dissertation

A doctoral thesis is required for the PhD programme and must embody the results of original investigation conducted by the student on the approved topic of research, and must constitute a significant contribution to the furthering of existing knowledge in the field.

Credit(s):
6

CP500 Comprehensive Examination

The doctoral student will be required to pass a comprehensive examination, which may contain a number of both written and oral components. This examination is for the purpose of assessing a student's academic appreciation of the field of study and scholarly qualifications for the degree.

Credit(s):
1
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